How to use this free Roth IRA calculator
Based on your current age, modified adjusted gross income and tax-filing status, the Roth IRA calculator will automatically calculate how much you’re eligible to contribute to a Roth IRA this year. You can adjust that contribution amount down if you plan to contribute less. (Roth IRAs have income limits for eligibility set by the IRS — at some incomes, your maximum annual contribution begins to phase out, and eventually, it is eliminated completely. See more about this below.)
Your Roth IRA balance at retirement is based on the factors you plug in to the calculator – your total planned annual contribution, your current age and retirement age and the rate of return. The Roth IRA calculator assumes 2% annual income growth. There is no inflation assumption.
The Roth IRA calculator defaults to a 6% rate of return, which can be adjusted to reflect the expected annual return of your investments.
You can add catch-up contributions in the Advanced fields. If you’re younger than 50, the calculator will begin factoring in the catch-up contribution amount when you turn age 50 and in the years following.
The Roth IRA calculator will quickly tell you your Roth IRA contribution limit, estimated tax savings, how much you need for retirement and how much your Roth IRA will contribute to your retirement savings. The estimated tax savings is a projection based on the difference between investing in a standard taxable account and investing in a Roth IRA. Investments in a standard taxable brokerage account are subject to capital gains taxes; saving for retirement in a Roth IRA has tax advantages — we’ve detailed those below.
Key details about Roth IRAs
A Roth IRA is a tax-advantaged individual retirement account. Contributions to a Roth IRA are made after tax, and money grows tax-free. As long as you follow the rules for Roth IRA distributions, you’ll pay no income tax when you take your money out in retirement.
This is in stark contrast to the tax treatment of a traditional IRA and a 401(k); both of those accounts earn you a tax deduction on contributions, but distributions in retirement are taxed as income.
A Roth IRA isn’t itself an investment, but an account through which you can buy investments. Most Roth IRAs will give you access to a large investment selection, including individual stocks, bonds and mutual funds. The investments you select should be based on your risk tolerance and time horizon.
Roth IRA annual contribution limits
The total annual contribution limit for the Roth IRA is $6,500 in 2023. An additional catch-up contribution of up to $1,000 is allowed per year for people 50 or older. Those limits apply to both Roth and traditional IRA accounts; if you have both, you can contribute a total of up to $6,500 in 2023 ($7,500 if 50 or older).
Roth IRA income limits for 2023
The Roth IRA income limit refers to the amount of money you can earn in income before the Roth IRA maximum annual contribution begins to phase down. At some incomes, the ability to contribute to a Roth IRA is eliminated completely.
Roth IRA contribution limits 2023
Single, head of household, or married, filing separately (if you didn’t live with spouse during year)
$6,500 ($7,500 if 50 or older).
More than $138,000, but less than $153,000.
Married filing jointly or qualifying widow(er)
$6,500 ($7,500 if 50 or older).
More than $218,000, but less than $228,000.
Married filing separately (if you lived with spouse at any time during year)
Roth IRA alternatives
If you’re not eligible to contribute at all, there are several other tax-advantaged ways to save for retirement.
401(k) or other workplace plan: Many people use a 401(k) or other employer retirement plan as their primary retirement account. You can contribute up to $22,500 to a 401(k) in 2023 (with an additional $7,500 as a catch-up contribution for those 50 or older). Some employers even offer a Roth version of the 401(k) with no income limits.
A traditional IRA: If you don’t have a 401(k) at work, you may be eligible to deduct the maximum amount to a traditional IRA. Keep in mind, if your spouse has a retirement plan at work, your ability to deduct contributions may be limited. Learn more about the traditional IRA deduction limits.
A nondeductible IRA. If you’re not eligible to deduct contributions to an IRA because you or your spouse has a retirement plan at work, you can still contribute to a traditional IRA without the tax deduction. This is called a nondeductible IRA. Your contributions to a nondeductible traditional IRA will still grow tax-deferred.
A backdoor Roth IRA: A backdoor Roth IRA is an IRS-approved way to convert money from a traditional IRA into a Roth IRA. There are often tax implications, and it can get complicated, so be sure to follow the rules. Many people opt to work with a financial or tax advisor to take advantage of this.
Your retirement age is the age you hope to retire. The full retirement age ranges from 65-67 depending on your year of birth.
Expected rate of return
The annual rate of return is the amount the investments in your Roth IRA make in a year. The Roth IRA calculator defaults to a 6% rate of return, which should be adjusted to reflect the expected annual return of your investments.
Investment earnings refer to any gains you’ve made on investments in your Roth IRA.
In general, to withdraw investment earnings from your Roth IRA, the account must be at least five years old and you must be 59 ½ or older. In contrast, you can withdraw the money you’ve contributed to a Roth IRA at any time, tax- and penalty-free.
With a few exceptions, all other withdrawals of earnings may be taxed as income and, in some cases, penalized with an additional 10% tax. Here’s a full rundown of the rules for Roth IRAs.